Is quantum resistance to protect against hacking, or against “fast mining” (preventing inequality between PoW miners)? How is it possible to guarantee quantum resistance? Isn’t our understanding of quantum computing just based on theories since quantum computers are not fully functional yet?Side chains will run parallel and be interoperable with the main chain. Side chains allow for new, more efficient, consensus mechanisms as well as smart contract functionality. Eventually other major blockchains will be interoperable with Hcash, through side chains and relays, DAG EVM for ETH, and other “Layer 2” solutions (Lightning Network for BTC and BTC forked code). Side chains allow for different scalability methods, flexibility and accessibility.
What do you mean by “exchange of value and valuable information”? Is this the exchange of coins and smart contracts?Quantum resistance is the protection against attacks made by quantum computers, which is currently contrasted by what we know about classical computers. Quantum computers weaken the security assumptions of certain types of cryptography, including ECDSA. If ECDSA were broken, attackers could steal balances in addresses that have made previous spends because the ECDSA public key for the address is revealed to the blockchain. Addresses with unexposed ECDSA keys will be resistant to this type of attack, as they are secured by RIPEMD160 and their ECDSA keys have not been revealed. Quantum resistance does not mean quantum proof. Quantum resistance means that quantum-based attacks do not have a significant advantage over the computers we have today. Based on what we currently know, our signature scheme is quantum resistant. No one knows what the future holds which is why it is important to always continue research and development into quantum resistant cryptography.
Imagine that in 2 years, a kid walks up to you and asks, “What do you do and how does it help society?”The “value” you are referring is not derived from our current understanding of value (fiat). The “true value” that blockchain systems hold is stored in the hashes themselves. Data and information is king.
An uninformed businessman who has no understanding of blockchain, but has heard Bitcoin approaches you. How do you explain your product and the benefits to him so that he remembers to give you a call the next day?We are one of many projects that helped build a more secure web of connected devices, and revolutionized peoples’ opinion on value and what really matters.
After reviewing the Hcash source code on GitHub https://github.com/HcashOrg/hcashd, I've found that almost all the Hcash main chain code has been written by SJTU (Shanghai Jiao Tong University), for example https://github.com/sammy00 https://github.com/yczhangsjtu. What have other contributors, such as the Nucleus Team, done for Hcash?Tell him to do his research on blockchain first before selling him on some grand idea. Smart investors grow a stable smart economy, not dumb money.
The main chain public repo hasn’t been updated very frequently.Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Lab of Cryptography and Computer Security is the primary contributor to the main chain code. It is no small feat to have the 4th best university in China working on this project. The Nucleus Team is working with them to finish main chain testing. After the main chain launch, the Nucleus team will focus on the future development for Hcash including our side DAG EVM and main chain Lightning interoperability.
When will the swap from Hshares to Hcash take place?Please refer to our new GitHub. The frequency of updates will increase as we approach/ pass the main chain launch.
What is the exact date of main chain launch?The swap to the main chain will take place after the main chain launch mid-February. Announcements will be made as to how and where you can swap your Hshares for Hcash.
Will you provide interoperability for all the existing blockchains?The main chain launch will take place mid-February. We are aiming for release on February 15th.
Will the interoperability between the blockchains support both transfer of data and transfer of value?We hope to provide interoperability for all blockchains in the future. That is a lot of work though. We will start with the larger chains that have healthy development and community sizes first. To make this easier, we plan to provide a back-end solution for new blockchains to make this process easier.
What is a block-less blockchain? Is this a traditional distributed system?Yes
How will Hcash bridge block-less and traditional blockchains?A block-less blockchain accomplishes the same goals as a traditional blockchain by using consensus to determine the order of transactions. A block-less blockchain, such as a DAG, allows for faster consensus without traditional block size requirements. Faster consensus means higher throughput.
What signature scheme will you use to achieve quantum resistance? Why?Through relays between our main chain and side DAG. A more technical analysis will be available in our upcoming yellow paper.
Provide an overview as to how inoperability will be achieved.Hcash is using the BLISS signature scheme. Hcash’s version of BLISS has been hardened to mitigate side channel attacks. BLISS was chosen for its efficient key and signature size.
Specifically, what is the theory behind Hcash’s interoperability?We will be using relays to Hashed Timelock Contracts for Lightning Network interop on our main chain, relays and colored coins that operate with our DAG EVM, bridges to side chains for more uncommon chains, and back-end protocols for newer blockchains.
What is the timeline for interoperability? Will this be the main focus of Hcash? When can be expect an Alpha version?This answer would be longer than the entire AMA. Unfortunately, the specifics will have to wait until the yellow paper release. In the meantime, I would read the Lightning Network whitepaper because it is an excellent source of information. You could also research BTC relays and EVMs.
How will swap values be calculated when switching between blockchains? Is it based on the current market value?We will be updating the roadmap in Q2. Interop timeframes will be easier to gauge after the main chain release. There are quite a few ideas around what we would like to tackle next, whether it would be assisting other projects on Lightning Network development, the DAG EVM implementation, or possibly both at the same time.
Will you update the whitepaper to include a comprehensive overview of interoperability, its theory and its exchange functions?Yes, it would be based on the current, real time market value.
Can you explain who will use the Hcash? I am trying to figure out where the supply and demand will come from.In the coming months we plan to do an update on the white paper. The technical analysis will be provided in our yellow paper. These will be detailed in the updated roadmap to be released after the main chain launch.
Will you be hiring an advertising team?Our target audience is everyone, from people playing mobile games to supporting business and government logic. The supply and demand will come with the need to transfer more and more data across multiple platforms. As for the economic model, this has not been outlined yet. We will be exploring all methods that fall in line with creating smart economies, including 2 token models.
What are ring signatures in cryptography? How do they work?We are already expanding Western marketing, primarily in the US. More focus on this will come soon after the main chain.
Most of us understand the interoperability of the network. What is a specific use case for Hcash? What role will Hcash have in the network? What makes it a requirement for interoperability? If someone has Bitcoin and wants to convert it to Ethereum using Hcash’s network wallet, is Hcash used as a fee for that conversion?At this time, we are exploring more efficient transaction schemes, such as bulletproofs. Bulletproofs can reduce the computational power needed for privatized/ anonymous transactions.
Here is an analogy. You walk into an arcade with 20 different machines. Each of these machines takes a different token, but you only have coins that operate with one of these machines. This would be the type of solution we hope to provide. Fees can be paid with Hcash. In the future we can explore taking fees in other denominations as well. More of this would be explained in detail with our yellow paper and economic model.
Are you willing to divulge how many apps you have in development for the Hcash main chain?Main chain release is mid-February, but we are aiming for launch on February 15th.
What is the Martian’s current relationship to Hcash? Is he still part of its team?The primary focus right now is to improve the stability of the Hcash main chain. This will ensure successful launches in the future for developers on our side DAG EVM.
Will the main chain go up according to schedule? Are there any problems with Hcash? The specialist sales team was made up of shareholders/ investors, right?The Hcash team is currently located on Earth. The last I heard the Martian was returning to Mars.
Is the code on GitHub all original? Are all developments executed on GitHub? Why is there so little original code? There are so few modifications. I also noticed there are remarkably few references to the code. Most of them are from documents that have been updated.Provided no unforeseen circumstances, we are on schedule for the main chain release. There are roadblocks and disconnects with every project. This is a new world of technology we are exploring. I think the team you may be referring to is the Hcash Foundation themselves. A lot of the Western marketing and development is being handled by the Nucleus Team.
What is scope of the Hcash R&D team?Many engineers have worked to contribute to the blockchain community over the years. We are taking advantage of the hard work and research that has been done while also making our own meaningful contributions for others to use in their code. It is important to acknowledge the contributions of others. The work completed by Decred in particular has allowed us to grow. Now we will have our chance to contribute back to them and others with our post quantum signature scheme and NG implementation. There are advantages of having similar projects that people don’t realize. For example, after our main chain launch we can explore assisting with development on the Lightning Network. As for GitHub, you will see activity increase when the main chain launches.
Hcash is currently collaborating with three universities. Shanghai Jiao Tong University has been working on the main chain quantum resistance. What are the main responsibilities of the other two universities?To assess, research and develop cutting edge decentralized consensus mechanisms and applications.
The Westerners working on Hcash don't seem very enthusiastic. They aren't following a lot of people on Twitter. Does the team have any clearer plans for increasing publicity?Building blockchain technology is a group effort. The other teams have also been researching other options for main chains, smart contracts etc. For example, Dr. Joseph Liu from Monash University is working on ring signature schemes to continue our research and development into privatized transactions. We are looking forward to taking the best efforts of all teams and bringing them to the blockchain communities at large, starting with the post quantum implementation from LoCCS at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
Are there plans to get onto more exchanges such as Bittrex?The Westerners are primarily focused on the technology, development, and creating more content. The community management will be increasing transparency and activity in time. More Western marketing can be done after the launch of the main chain.
When will quantum resistant technology be implemented into Hcash? Where can we follow the developments being made and is there anywhere we can go to participate in the project?When moon? We are constantly considering all options to allow users to access Hcash. Currently we are listed amongst some of the top exchanges like Binance and growing exchanges like KuCoin.
Where do you download the wallet? How do you mine?Quantum resistant technology is available now on GitHub at https://github.com/HcashOrg/hcashd and will be available for use outside of the testing environment when the main chain launches in the middle of February.
When will Hshares swap Hcash? Can you announce a general time?The wallet for the new main chain can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/HcashOrg/hcashwallet. You can mine on the new main chain by joining a pool or using the hcashd node to solo-mine.
Will there be an address mapping when Hshares swaps to Hcash like there was with EOS? What other kind of mechanism will be used for the coin swap?Hshares can be redeemed for Hcash after the main chain launches in the middle of February. Announcements will be made regarding how and where to swap your Hshares for Hcash.
When will the main chain that can support smart contracts go online? When will tokenization for Hcash take place?A snapshot of Hshares will be included in the Genesis (first) block of Hcash’s launch to allow users to convert their Hshares into Hcash. An announcement will be made as to how, when and where conversions will take place.
There aren't many updates on GitHub and there aren’t many contributors. What kind of coordination is going on with the development team?Smart contract functionality will be available when our side DAG launches. Users, businesses and developers will be able to build dApps, launch tokens and more. We are making sure the main chain is a stable foundation before adding our DAG to the Hcash ecosystem.
Based on what I've been reading, Shanghai Jiao Tong University is mainly responsible for the main chain portion of the project. How is their team doing? How many research students in their labs are helping them?Both the Nucleus Team and members of Shanghai Jiao Tong University LoCCS are working together to finalize testing. Updates are being made to our GitHub at https://github.com/HcashOrg/hcashd.
Can you confirm that the main chain will finally go up in mid-February? Is it just a hypothetical date and then a further delay?Shanghai Jiao Tong is responsible for building and launching the new main chain. Their team there has been doing a great job with research and development and we look forward to seeing more of their work. The Nucleus Team is currently working with them to finish testing. After testing, the Nucleus team will focus on the future development of the project including our side DAG. I do not know the size of their team as we have not visited their lab.
What is the status of these interoperability features? When is the main chain going online?The primary responsibility is to make sure the main chain is stable and secure so that it can be used as the foundation to add other important features to the Hcash ecosystem, like smart contracts and hidden transactions. Everyone is working very hard to hit the target release date of mid-February. We are planning on mid-February for the launch unless anything unexpected comes up.
Won’t zero knowledge proofs conflict with the system’s throughput?Main chain will be released mid-February. The interoperability features depend on the stability of the network. Our side DAG EVM will be the quickest addition to the Hcash ecosystem that will allow for ETH interoperability. Lightning Network on the main chain will require further research and development.
We are currently working on more uncommon implementations of zero proof knowledge, such as bulletproofs that allow for efficient transaction speeds. We can also achieve higher throughput with our side DAG.
https://preview.redd.it/3mx7amtio9g11.png?width=696&format=png&auto=webp&s=f2bd956843196fa2f51048a86f9608b6e714f62esubmitted by noxonsu to SwapOnline [link] [comments]
On the eve of the release on the mainnet, the team of the cross-chain wallet Swap Online is publishing a research study and the code of the atomic swapusing USDT.
USD Tether — the equivalent of the dollar on Omni LayerThe solution described above with the protocol “over” the Bitcoin network gave life to one of the most controversial cryptocurrency projects of the last two years — Tether. Tether (symbol Tether — ₮, ticker — USDT) is a hybrid cryptocurrency with a rate binding to one US dollar. Moreover, according to the assurances of Tether Limited, the issuer of the given tokens, the “binding” is to be understood literally, as each purchased token of USDT corresponds to one US dollar available at the disposal of the company.
If we take the three largest exchanges based on their daily turnover of transactions at the time of writing (Binance, OKEx and HuObi), and then track the five most popular trading pairs for each, we will encounter USDT in 13 out of 15 cases.
USDT — the token with the largest capitalization in the world.All this generates great community interest in faster, safer and cheaper solutions for exchanging Tether into other currencies. Obviously, such a solution could be atomic swaps, which are instant, decentralized cross-chain exchanges. The Komodo laboratory, the main headliners of this technology, who presented it in the autumn of 2017, reported on the successful exchange of KMD to USDT carried out on the BarterDEX platform, Komodo’s own exchanger.
At the same time, according to our data, the developers of Komodo made a swap on the ERC20-a version of Tether, which is only available in 3% of cases. Approximately 60 million USDT from global turnover can thus be exchanged using this method, which, obviously, cannot be considered as a solution to the problem. Striking examples of imperfections of existing solutions can be found even on Etherscan.
This fall, the team of Swap Online is ready to present an atomic swap with Tether. And here’s how we did it.
How Omni conducts transactionsTo carry out the Omni transaction, a user needs to create a regular Bitcoin transaction-transfer of 546 satoshi (minimum) with an additional output storing payload using the OP_RETURN op-code. An example of such a transaction. The payload is a mandatory part of any Omni transaction, as it is a sequence of bytes containing all the necessary information about the transaction.
Let us consider what information is stored in the payload itselftransaction marker — 4 bytes, the mandatory part of any Omni payload is always equal to 0x6f6d6e69 — ASCII code omni. If the first 4 bytes of the sequence are not equal to 0x6f6d6e69, then this sequence is not a payload of Omni.
version — 2 bytes, an analog version of the transaction in Bitcoin. For the described algorithm to work, version 0 is used, or that is the same as 0x0000.
transaction type — 2 bytes, transaction type, for an atomic swap it is sufficient to use only “Simple send” transactions, as simple send is the usual sending of omni currency from its address to the address of the recipient. Simple send corresponds to the transaction type code 0, that is, the next 2 bytes 0x0000. Other possible types of transactions exist in Omni.
token identifier — 4 bytes, identifier of the currency used. For example TetherUS has the identifier 31 or 0x0000001f. All tokens created by the Omni protocol at this time can be seen via the following link.
amount — 8 bytes, for a transaction of type Simple send, this is the amount of the sent currency.
As you can see, payload does not store the addresses of senders and recipients of the transactions, these addresses are determined by the Bitcoin transaction in which the payload output was detected. By scanning inputs, the Omni protocol determines who makes the transfer by finding the output of the corresponding address from among the inputs of the transaction p2pkh.
Thus, for a transfer from Alice to Bob of, for example, 50,000,000 TetherUS, we need to create a Bitcoin transaction where one of the inputs will refer to the p2pkh output corresponding to the Alice address. It is also important that this entry be the first in this transaction (the index of this entry in the received transaction would be is minimal or none at all). One of the outputs of this transaction should be the output of p2pkh to Bob’s address, and another output must have been one of the outputs with the following payload:
Atomic Swap on Omni LayerSuppose that Alice and Bob are willing to make an inter-blockchain exchange of cryptocurrencies. Alice wants to exchange the units of any Omni currency, for example TetherUS (the given currency has the currency identifier # 31 in the Mainnet, then in the text we will only talk about this currency of the Omni protocol, since it is the most popular at the moment, but the algorithm below will work for any currency of the Omni protocol as well) for b units of a cryptocurrency working on another blockchain. (Omni works on top of the Bitcoin blockchain, of course, according to the algorithm below it is possible to exchange TetherUS for Bitcoins, but due to their work on one and the same blockchain, this exchange can be done in a different, more efficient way).
GlossaryA — blockchain of Bitcoin.
B — the blockchain of the cryptocurrency for which TetherUS is being exchanged.
a — the sum of TetherUS, which Alice wants to exchange.
b — the sum of the cryptocurrency of the adjoining blockchain B, to which Alice wants to exchange her a TetherUS.
Creating a Transaction1) Bob generates a random value secret.
2) Bob calculates the secretHash by performing the following operation: secretHash = RIPEMD160 (secret)
3) Bob creates and sends an htlc transaction sealed by secretHash
4) Bob sends Alice a secretHash value, and a hash of the hrlc transaction he created in the previous paragraph in order for Alice to make sure that the correct htlc transaction is actually present in the B blockchain.
5) Alice received from Bob the secretHash and hash of the htlc-transaction Bob created, and is convinced that such a transaction is really present in the B blockchain, and that this is indeed a htlc-transaction sealed by the secretHash value.
6) using the received secretHash, Alice creates the following transaction and translates it into the Bitcoin blockchain:
Let us call such a transaction financing_tx. In fact, it is almost an ordinary Bitcoin htlc transaction that is used in atomic swap with the only difference that in the amount field, 546 satoshi is the minimum number of Bitcoins that can be at the output of the transaction, below this value, Bitcoin counts the transaction as dust and does not conduct it.
7) Alice creates a transaction according to the following scheme:
Let us call this transaction redeem_tx. Alice creates such a transaction with two inputs: the first is the input referencing the output of funding_tx, which contains the htlc script. Alice does not sign this script, that is, the SigScript field remains completely empty. The second input is the input referring to any unspent exits of Alice, the main condition is that at this output stage there are enough Bitcoins to pay the transaction fee, and this entry is signed by Alice with her private key with the signature type SIGHASH_ALL (that is, she signs the entire transaction except for SigScript fields on the inputs transaction, which makes this transaction immutable. The outputs of the same transaction are the elementary Simple Send and a TetherUS from Alice to Bob (details of what Simple Send, payload is and how it works can be found in another section).
8) Alice sends Bob the redeem_tx created in the previous paragraph and the one she signed herself.
9) Bob got the redeem_tx sent by Alice, checks it, just looks through the inputs and outputs, making sure that this is really a transaction that Alice should have created using the real algorithm. After that, Bob signs the transaction with his private key and provides the secret value in the SigScript of the corresponding redeem_tx entry.
10) Bob sends the signed redeem_tx transaction to the blockchain, thereby transferring the TetherUS currency from Alice to himself. Note — before carrying out this step, we still need to check that Alice’s address has the necessary amount of TetherUS.
11) Alice looks through blockchain A and gets the value secret and uses it in the B blockchain to transfer the funds using the htlc transaction Bob created in point 3. The exchange ends here.
Stating the obvious: naturally the timelock value used by Bob when creating the htlc-transaction must be significantly longer than the timelock that Alice uses, since her htlc transaction should be spent earlier than the htlc created by Bob. This is necessary so that Bob cannot manage to spend both htlc.
ConclusionThus, connecting Omni Layer to Swap Online allows users to cover transactions.
Full research you may find in our GithubC++ source code for creating TX
C++ source code for redeem TX
Swap.Online Essential LinksWebsite: https://testnet.swap.online GitHub: https://github.com/swaponline Email: [email protected] Telegram: https://t.me/swaponline Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Swaponline Twitter: https://twitter.com/SwapOnlineTeam Wiki: https://wiki.swap.online/ Bitcointalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4636633
Binance blockchain interoperability through Overledger by Quant Network. A brief look into the basics of Binance Blockchain and how to implement it.. I got chance to explore Binance Blockchain and ... WebAssembly versions of secp256k1, ripemd160, sha256, sha512, and sha1 - bitauth/bitcoin-ts. nayuki/Bitcoin-Cryptography-Library; Tierion/merkle-tools. Tools for creating Merkle trees, generating merkle proofs, and verification of merkle proofs. mcdallas/cryptotools; Okamoto Beats Schnorr: On the Provable Security of Multi-Signatures 🚧 Mobile. consenlabs/token-core-ios. a blockchain private ... Finally, the Bitcoin address is created from by performing a one-way cryptographic hashing. The SHA256 hash is used on the public key, followed by a RIPEMD160 hash and then a base58 encoding. This outputs the Bitcoin address itself, which is a string of 34 numbers and letters which can safely be made available to the public. Anyone can send ... Unfortunately, ripemd160 only produces 20-byte hashes. Even if you somehow did have a string that produces such an impossible hash, good luck finding the associated private key.” Given that the ... Du hast vielleicht gehört, dass Bitcoin auf Kryptographie basiert, einem Zweig der Mathematik, der in der Computersicherheit verwendet wird. Kryptographie bedeutet "geheimes Schreiben" auf Griechisch, aber die Wissenschaft der Kryptographie umfasst mehr als nur geheimes Schreiben, das als Verschlüsseln bezeichnet wird. Kryptographie kann auch verwendet werden, um die Kenntnis eines ... The algorithms used to create a bitcoin address from a public key are Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) and RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD), in particular, SHA256 and RIPEMD160. From the public key K it is calculated first the hash SHA256 and then the hash RIPEMD160, generating a 160-bit number (20-byte). Address=(Network Version) & Ripemd160(sha256(x&y) & checksum. There is also the checksum to add which is essentially a hash of the address of the hash of the address – this is to check that the address is what it is – to stop typos et al. Checksum=First four bytes of sha256(sha256((Network Version)&Ripemd160(sha256(x&y))
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